Internal tobacco industry documents related to the 1954 "Frank Statement"

01. In 1953, the industry knew that smoking causes cancer

Document id: ymch0045 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-02-02    Pages: 22
Survey of Cancer Research with Emphasis Upon Possible Carcinogens from Tobacco
Document date: 1953-02-02   Type: report   Collection: Ness Motley Law Firm Documents  
Author: Teague, C  

Note: Report of February 2, 1953, by Dr. CE Teague Jr., Research Scientist, R&D Administration Director at RJ Reynolds. The report includes a long table listing animal studies with tobacco substances.
Several recent, well-controlled, large scale, clinical studies on correlation of tobacco smoking with cancer of the lung have been made (20, 40, 41, 44). The conclusions reached by Wynder and Graham in their recent study (26) are summarized below; their survey was made by direct interview of more than 700 patients vith biopsy-proven primary cancer of the lung.
1. Excessive and prolonged use of tobacco, especially cigarettes, seems to be an important factor in the induction of lung cancer.
3. The occurrence of lung cancer in a male nonsmokers is a rare phenomenon.
4. Tobacco seems to play a similar but somewhat less evident role in the induction of lung cancer in women. Among this group a greater percentage of nonsmokers were found than among men, with 10 to 25 being nonsmokers.
5. 96.1% of patients with cancer of the lungs who had a history of smoking had smoked for over 20 years. Few women have smoked that long and this is probably the reason for the greater present incidence among men.
6. 94.1% of the male patients with cancer of the lungs were found to be cigarette smokers, 4.0% pipe smokers, and 3.5% cigar smokers (some use more than one form of tobacco product). [...] The greater practice of inhalation among cigarette smokers is believed to be a factor in the increased incidence of the disease.
8. Three independent studies have resulted in data so uniform that one may deduce the saw conclusions from them.
Animal Studies with Tobacco Substances
In all but a few cases one or more tumors, usually of a malignant type, resulted from application of various tobacco substances to the skins of a variety of test animals. In most cases the tumors appeared only after a more or less prolonged latent period. The results are somewhat inconclusive but indicate that substances derived from tobacco have some degree of carcinogenic activity.
The increased incidence of cancer of the lung in man which has occurred during the last half century is probably due to new or increased contact with carcinogenic stimuli. The closely parallel increase in cigarette smoking has led to the suspicion that tobacco smoking is an important etiologic factor in the induction of primary cancer of the lung. Studies of clinical data tend to confirm the relationship between heavy and prolonged tobacco smoking and incidence of cancer of the lung. Extensive though inconclusive testing of tobacco substances on animals indicates the probable presence of carcinogenic agents in those substances.

02. Official public position on the smoking-cancer question: denial

Document id: hqkm0007 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-00    Pages: 2
"Smoking is Not the Cause of Lung Cancer" (2 page statement)
Document date: 1953-12-00   Type: report   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR ATCO  

Note: Brief statement (2 pages) of December 1953 prepared by HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco, for use in reply to inquiries
Tobacco has been under fire, as a menace to health, for more than 360 years and cigarettes have often been singled out for special attack. The arguments have often been characterized by appeals to prejudice and emotion. During the course of this long debate, at one time or another practically every disease of the human body has been ascribed to the use of tobacco. One by one, these charges have been abandoned for lack of evidence.
If there are any serious questions of health which are related to the use of tobacco, they will be resolved, we believe, - not by studies limited to the skins of mice, not by observing the parallelism between disease and smoking or some other condition of modern living, not by debate in the lay press - but by slow, painstaking and comprehensive scientific research.
Document id: gqkm0007 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-00    Pages: 13
"Smoking is Not the Cause of Lung Cancer" (13 page memorandum)
Document date: 1953-12-00   Type: report   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR ATCO  

Note: Memorandum (13 pages) of December 1953 prepared by HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco, for use in reply to inquiries
Document id: xgkj0191 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-11-26    Pages: 6
Press release of November 26, 1953 of the American Tobacco Company
Document date: 1953-11-26   Type: deposition exhibit   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: The public should be reassured: no one has proved that lung cancer is directly traceable to tobacco
Paul M. Hahn, President of The American Tobacco Company, took issue today with what he called loose talk on the subject of smoking in relation to lung cancer. Stating that the public should be reassured on the subject of smoking and health, he pointed out that no one has yet proved that lung cancer in any human being is directly traceable to tobacco or to its products in any form.
There are scientists who are convinced that the growth of cigarette smoking and the increase of lung cancer are grounds for suspecting a link. On the other hand, there are many scientists who report that the statistics which are supposed to show a link between the rise in lung cancer and the increased use of cigarettes are faulty, unreliable, and often-times meaningless.
At one time or another within the past 350 years practically every known disease of the human body has been ascribed to the use of tobacco. One by one these charges have been abandoned for lack of evidence.
The American Tobacco Company is working at and supporting scientific research of a fundamental nature in this field, within its own laboratory and in independent institutions. [...] We are confident that long-range, impartial investigation and other objective research will confirm the view that neither tobacco nor its products contribute to the incidence of lung cancer.
Document id: jtmb0015 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-08    Pages: 4
Letter of October 8, 1953 from HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco to Dr. BS Miller, American Cancer Society
Document date: 1953-10-08   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR  

Recipient: Miller-BS, American Cancer Society Inc  
Note: Hanmer declines an offer "to discuss the remarks to be made by Dr. E. Cuyler Hammond and Dr. Ernest L. Wynder on lung cancer at the Scientific Session of the Annual Meeting of the American Cancer Society." The reason is that it "has not been the policy of The American Tobacco Company [...] to publicize its own research or that supported elsewhere although as stated scientific articles from both sources have appeared in appropriate journals." Hanmer take the opportunity of this exchange of correspondence to state the company's position on the cigarette and health issue.
[...] notwithstanding claims of suggested "statistical correlation," no proof has been advanced that tobacco smoking is the cause of malignant diseases of the respiratory tract. Authorities themselves differ widely. It is only natural too that, tobacco being enjoyed at it is by so many millions of persons, comment on this subject should receive a groat deal of publicity.
At the same time it should be remembered by all of us, as a glance at the long history of smoking shows, that, at one time or another, practically every known disease of the human body has been attributed to tobacco and that these statements have been shown in the past to be unsupported by real evidence. We have confidence that long-range impartial investigation and other objective research will result in the same conclusion.
Document id: rsmh0151 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-01-01    Pages: 6
Public Relations and Cigarette Marketing, speech by G Weissman, Vice President, Philip Morris delivered on March 30, 1954
Document date: 1954-01-01   Type: report   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Authors: Philip Morris & Co Ltd, Weissman,G  

Note: Speech made at the Convention of the National Association of Tobacco Distributors (NATD). Contains the famous quote: "If we knew our product were harmful, we would stop business tomorrow."
Technologically, we make the best tobacco products im the world. Distribution-wise, we are the most efficient industry in the world. Advertising-wise, we have the power and mastery to sell as no other nation can. But in this one element of public relations - today the most important consideration of our business - we have, been delinquent.
I would only like to say this on behalf of our officials at Philip Morris, and I believe this represents the view of the other manufacturers, the jobbers, retailers and everyone in this room:
If we had any thought or knowledge that in any way we were selling a product harmful to consumers, we would stop business tomorrow.
Document id: spwn0106 (PDF)    Document date: 1971-06-29    Pages: 2
Political Public Relations Policy. Memorandum by G. Weissman, President, Philip Morris USA
Document date: 1971-06-29   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: WEISSMAN,G  

Recipient: BOWLING,J  
Note: This note presents the industry as a victime of medical "MacCartyism" and refers to the freedom to smoke as being part of the general movement for individual liberty
Note: The whole question of individual liberty and freedom in many areas is under review today. The 70's represent an era where the Liberal wants the freedom to love, the freedom to speak, the freedom "to do your own thing" as long as it does not harm other members of society. Drinking, sex, smoking, manner of dress, and length of hair all come under this heading.
The Tobacco Industry has been a victim of "McCarthyism". Unsubstantiated charges have been leveled at us using statistics the same way McCarthy in his famous West Virginia speech accused four thousand people in the State Department of being subversive without any proof. In our case, there has been no laboratory proof to support even the questionable statistical allegation.
The whole question of national priorities and the force and storm that is being raised about this comparatively innocuous habit that gives pleasure to people versus the pollution, disease, poverty, bad housing, and many other problems which tear our society apart.
Time and again, we must hammer home the fact that no one is more interested in cooperation, research, and finding new products than the Tobacco Industry itself. We can point to our constant reduction in advertising and tar and nicotine contents, in improving our filters, controlling emission, our volunteering to go off radio and television, and our expenses in research.

03. Preparation for an industry-wide action leading to the December 15, 1953 meeting and the Frank Statement

Document id: ggkj0191 (PDF)    Document date: 2008-05-19    Pages: 9
Document date: 2008-05-19   Type: deposition exhibit   Collection: Philip Morris Records  


This is, of course, the most challenging problem our organization has ever faced - and perhaps the most challenging problem that ever faced a great industry, one with annual sales of almost $5 billions at retail, and with economic roots that reach clear back to the farm.

Problem l

The very first problem is to establish some public confidence in the industry's leaders themselves, so that the public will believe their assertions of their own interest in the public health. [...]

Problem 2

To reassure the public, and still instinctive fears, in this interim when definitive facts for giving complete assurance are still lacking) when scientific doubts must remain; and when new "unfavorable" information can emerge from some laboratory at any time, to act as a bomb shell on the whole tobacco industry [...].

Problem 3

How to validate this message of assurance. The men talked to in the cigarette companies tend to:

(a) Think occasionally in terms of trying to "smear" the personal responsibility, motives, judgments, or techniques of Wynder and others supporting him. (But this approach would be most dubious.)

(b) To believe the scientific case can be arguing in the public arena, by leading the layman through elaborate statements which only specialists are really qualified to weigh and debate, in their own scientific councils; for the quest of ultimate causes behind known effects is the specialists' job. (This approach is shown in the documents from Philip Morris and American Tobacco, when they extract quotes from the various Journals, and assemble them for public circulation. But it is extremely doubtful whether anyone could trim such an assembly of quotes in a fashion that would (l) give the smoker absolute psychological assurance, and (2) still leave the compilation a completely honeetstatement of the cancer situation, in a way that would satisfy most scientists at this juncture. Honesty in science requires careful consideration and weighing of all points of view. The cigarette companies cannot hope to sponsor any public debate over cause-and-effect that would satisfy both smokers and scientists. Hence they are bound to lose in this effort regardless of what they night briefly gain.)

(c) To overlook the fact that in this particular instance, the stakes for the public are even larger than for the tobacco manufacturers. (For the public, an issue touching the deepest of human fears and instincts is involved - the issues of uncontrollable disease and death. Hence cigarette companies might not readily be forgiven, if their approach to this problem is stemmed only from eagerness to protect their earnings, and if they twisted the research of medical science (which seeks to save men) into a device to save stockholders. There is no precedent where a great industry has been forced to face such grave issues.

In the past, industry has given little twists to the facts of science, to convert them into sales propaganda, without much risk. The cigarette industry has indeed been doing this for years. We can therefore readily understand its assumptions that the same technique will work now, in devising propaganda. But it is highly important to note that the deep issues of life-and-death that are now involved make highly doubtful the question as to whether the familiar techniques can be relied on. The stakes are too large; the penalties for losing could be too great.)

(d) To assume that agents like science writers can be guided and encouraged to disseminate special "interpretations" of current findings, in ways that would blame lung cancer on everything else but cigarettes - or (even better) in ways that would throw doubt on the validity of statistics showing great increases in lung cancer. If the issue were merely coughs, or sore throats, or warts, this might work. There is serious question as to whether anyone — after due reflection -- would consider such a course useful for long term purposes, in the present circumstances.

Problem 4

We must early decide our own attitude toward the flnding of men like Wynder, Rhoads, Ochsner, et al. We have a choice, as previously indicated, of:

(a) Smearing and belittling them;

(b) Trying to overwhelm them with mass publication of the opposed viewpoints of other specialists;

(c) Debating them in the public arena; or

(d) We can determine to raise the issue far above them, so that they are hardly even mentioned and then we can make our real case.

Problem 5

Problem 5 hitches on to Problem 4 and all subsequent problems. How can we move immediately to identify the tobacco companies completely with concern for the public good? This accomplishment — if we can manage it — would throw everything else into proper focus, and would show the answers to the other various problems.

Problem 6

There is much to indicate that we have one essential job - which can be simply said:

Stop public panic, without ever getting in the position of giving false assurances, or of giving false emphases. The facts for the average man are reassuring enough, without getting into any scientific arguments whatever his chances of getting lung cancer are too infinitesimal to worry about at all. [...] So let the scientists do the worrying for us - that's their business; and meanwhile let us go on eating, and working, and playing, and smoking, and relaxing, and riding in automobiles, and living a good life everyday.

You can count on the cigarette companies (who have obligated themselves to pour millions of dollars into cancer research) to take anything out of your cigarette that is a health hazard, if our science ever really finds any such hazard in the wonderful tobacco leaf. Meanwhile know this: despite the most elaborate attempts, no efforts to give mice a lung illness by making them live days on end in tobacco smoke have ever produced a case of such illness through that kind of exposure.

Develop some understanding with companies that, on this problem, none is going to seek a competitive advantage by inferring to its public that its product is less risky than others. (No claims that special filters or toasting, or expert selection of tobacco, or extra length in the butt, or anything else, makes a given brand less likely to cause you-know-what. No "Play-Safe-with-Luckies" idea - or with Camels or with anything else.)

Document id: rkpw0130 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-08-12    Pages: 2
Proposed letter to the industry by OP McComas, President, Philip Morris
Document date: 1953-08-12   Type: letter   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: Draft of letter of August 12, 1953 prepared by JS Fones of Philip Morris for the signature of OP McComas, President, Philip Morris, to all tobacco companies. The note refer to "allegations" that the use of tobacco results in adverse effects upon the health of consumers and calls for the creation of an industry's steering committee "to analyze the criticism and decide upon the best method to meet it". A handwritten note at the top of the document reads "Funding med. res."
A serious situation has begun to make inroads into the sales potential of our industry.
As manufacturers of tobacco products, we have been assailed as a group from certain quarters which allege that the use of tobacco - particularly cigarettes - results in adverse effects upon the health of consumers.
No matter how questionable the claims of these allegations, from a scientific point of view, they are nevertheless beginning to play upon the fears and consciences of the public.
It is time, I think, that we recognize the need for originating an Industry Steering Committee (in the nature of a Tobacco Institute, perhaps), open to representation by each producer of a cigarette product, to analyze the criticism and decide on the best method to meet it.
Such a Committee could be expected to accomplish at least these things:
1) Investigate, study, and analyze, in scientific and objective terms, the relationship - if any - between the use of tobacco products and any impairment of health, and;
2) By using modern publicity techniques, to formulate and implement an efficient public relations program for the interpretation of such findings to all media of public opinion.
[...] a preliminary discussion among representatives of the cigarette manufacturing industry might be a desirable and constructive way to step into this project; perhaps some evening at dinner.
Document id: qkpw0130 (PDF)    Document date: Undefined    Pages: 1
Handwritten cover note of letter dated August 12, 1953 "to the industry"
Document date: Undefined   Type: note   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: FONES,JS  

Recipient: G,W (WEISSMAN,G)  
Note: Handwritten cover note of letter dated August 12, 1953 "to the industry", by JS Fones, Philip Morris. This note indicates that the proposed letter was prepared for OP McComas, President, Philip Morris
This is my version of the proposed letter to the industry from Mr. McComas.
Document id: jrhw0052 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-05    Pages: 2
Note containing a verbatim quotation of OP McComas, president of Philip Morris
Document date: 1953-10-05   Type: letter   Collection: Brown & Williamson Records  
Authors: B&W, B>W, Hartnett-T  

Recipients: Imperial Tobacco Co. (of G.B. & I.) Ltd., Imperial Tobacco Co. (of G.B. > I.) Ltd., Sinclair-R  
Note: Note of October 5, 1953 addressed to Sir R Sinclair, Imperial Tobacco, UK, containing a verbatim quotation of OP McComas, president of Philip Morris
McComas "I am very much concerned about the publicity being given the speculative opinion of a number of medical men about the effects that cigarette smoking might have upon the development of lung cancer. I think it high time that the cigarette industry take the offensive instead of standing idly by while extremely adverse publicity is given such free play.[...] I know that Liggett and Myers is conducting its own research in respect to the cancer problem but Ben Few, the president of that company, has expressed his willingness to me to form some sort of a trade association group that would sponsor research. Bert Kent of Lorillard has expressed a similar attitude and I intend to talk to Paul Hahn about it when I next see him at some trade or social event."
Document id: ymby0042 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-00-00    Pages: 9
To members of the planning committee (undated document found in John Hill archives)
Document date: 1953-00-00   Type: memo   Collection: Ness Motley Law Firm Documents  
Author: Dakin, Edwin  

Recipient: To Members of the Planning Committee  
Note: This was probably written in the second half of December 1953

This is, of course, the most challenging problem our organization has ever faced - and perhaps the most challenging problem that ever faced a great industry [...].

The attitude of the men we must directly deal with in the industry is at once interesting, and important for us to understand. That is why notes on the four interviews with "research directors" are given at some length. You'll get from them little real information about lung cancer, pro or con; but you'll find some mighty interesting opinions. One of the men said, "It's fortunate for us that cigarettes are a habit they can't break." Said another "Boy! wouldn't it be wonderful if our company was first to produce a cancer free cigarette. What we could do to competition!"

At the moment, these men feel thrown for a loop. They've competed for years - not in price, not in any real difference of quality - but just in ability to conjure up more hypnotic claims and brighter assurances for what their own brand might do for a smoker, compared to another brand. And now, suddenly, they feel all out of bounds, because the old claims become unimportant overnight; they are suddenly challenged to produce just one, simple fact. Walter Winchell told his own audience the nature of this fact, in brief words: "The burden of proof has shifted. It is no longer up to the scientists to prove that cigarettes cause lung cancer. It is the duty of all concerned to prove that they do not."

And this, of course, is exactly what no individual in the whole world can prove at this juncture; - and until that proof comes in some form, arguments over the logic of some scientist, and criticism of his particular ideas of cause-and-effect, can satisfy neither scientists nor public; or get anywhere. And the days of bright promotion claims, tossed off Madison Avenue heads like Lorelei's locks, are suddenly finished.

"This is the way the world ends - not in a bang but a whimper."

There is only one problem -- confidence, and how to establish it; public assurance, and how to create it -- in a perhaps long interim when scientific doubts must remain. And, most important, how to free millions of Americans from the guilty fear that is going to arise deep in their biological depths -- regardless of any pooh-poohing logic -- every time they light a cigarette. No resort to mere logic ever cured panic yet, whether on Madison Avenue, Main Street, or in a psychologist's office. And no mere recitation of arguments pro, or ignoring of arguments con, or careful balancing of the two together, is going to deal with such fear now.

That, gentlemen, is the nature of the unexampled challenge to this office.

Document id: zfkj0191 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-10    Pages: 1
Telegram of December 10, 1953 from EA Darr, president of American Tobacco proposing a meeting of the heads of cigarette companies
Document date: 1953-12-10   Type: deposition exhibit   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: The telegram was sent to RJ Reynolds Tobacco, Liggett & Myers Tobacco, Lorillard, Philip Morris, Brown & Williamson, Benson & Hedgesand to Mr. JB Hutson "as representative of tobacco growing interests".
In view of the highly publicized claims of certain medical men not sponsored by any duly accredited scientific medical organization charging serious danger to health from smoking, I suggest for your consideration a meeting of the heads of all those cigarette companies that have manifested active interest in scientific research and are therefore informed as to the true facts. The objective would be an industry response to these charges exposing their lack of scientific foundation. The method would be such as the meeting might determine including use of advertising media. I believe that the very fact that it was a statement having complete industry support would in itself carry strong conviction.
Document id: tnby0042 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-22    Pages: 4
Draft of recommendations for cigarette manufacturers by Hill & Knowlton
Document date: 1953-12-22   Type: report   Collection: Ness Motley Law Firm Documents  

Note: Draft of recommendation to cigarette manufacturers dated December 22, 1953 prepared by John Hill of Hill & Knowlton
Because of the serious nature of the attacks on cigarettes and the vast publicity given them over the air and in the daily press and in magazines of the widest circulation, a hysteria of fear appears to be developing throughout the country.
There is no evidence that this adverse publicity is abating or will soon abate. [...]
This publicity has given rise to a situation which makes it imperative for the cigarette makers to inform the public regarding the facts. A large majority of the industry has decided upon joint action.
The following name is submitted for the Committee: Cigarette Research and Information Committee. It is believed that the word "Research" is needed in the name to give weight and added credence to the Committee's statements. However, the word cannot be used unless the industry is prepared to back it up with genuine joint research action and support. The research to be sponsored by the Committee would be of two kinds, namely (a) medical research to be financed jointly and (b) editorial and statistical research in all phases of the cigarette problem to be carried on through public relations counsel.
Continuing Public Relations Research. There should be set up at the headquarters of the Committee, a continuing research project to collect, coordinate and disseminate (where practical) all available information on various medical research activities bearing on every phase of cigarettes and health.
Initially, this project would cover such subjects as:
a. Research into statistics [...]
b. Research of lung cancer and cigarette consumption statistics in certain other countries, including England and France. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. is prepared to handle this assignment, if desired, through its associated public relations firms in England and on the Continent.
Historical research. The Committee should research and issue a historical background study on the number of human ills attributed to tobacco over the centuries.
Document id: lqgx0057 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-14    Pages: 5
Memorandum from T.V. Hartnett, Brown & Williamson, for discussion at industry meeting
Document date: 1953-12-14   Type: other   Collection: Brown & Williamson Records  
Author: HARTNETT, TV/X  

Note: "Our job, like a coin, has two sides"
At the moment a highly vocal minority has taken the initiative in public1ing its admittedly inconclusive studies of the effects of cigarette smoking. Excessive care, it seems to us, must be used at this time in the methods we adopt to counteract these claims. Some of the doctors whose names have recently made the headlines are men of unquestioned integrity and sincere in their belief that their findings are significant. The problem is to challenge these findings ethically and effectively without rancor -- to win friends rather than to create enemies.
Our job, like a coin, has two sides. The first, of course, is unstinted assistance to scientific research. That is both a given and an accepted obligation of the already overworked medical profession and potentially a life-blood need of the cigarette industry. [...] But cancer research, while certainly getting our every support, can be only half an answer. [...]
The other side of the coin is public relations.>
Public Relations:
(a) is basically a selling tool and the most astute selling may well be needed to get the industry out of this hole.
(b) is the only fast, even the only present answer.
(c) can, given the fact that millions upon millions now derive real pleasure from smoking, fill a real need for the facts on both sides - more accurately, for all the facts,
(d) Nevertheless, conventionally applied can be our undoing.
It isn't exaggeration that no public relations expert has ever been handed so real and yet so delicate a multi-million dollar problem.
Document id: fgkj0191 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-14    Pages: 3
Tobacco Industry Meeting, New York, December 14, 1953
Document date: 1953-12-14   Type: deposition exhibit   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: Seven tobacco companies and the Bright Tobacco Growers association were present at the meeting, which was chaired by P. Hahn, American Tobacco The tobacco companies were represented by their top executives.
Mr. Hahn served as chairman and the meeting was opened with a general discussion of the recent attacks on cigarette smoking which have been widely publicised. It was the feeling of those present that the industry could most effectively face this problem by jointly engaging a public relations counsel. The task was considered of such a specialised nature that an advertising company could not deal with it with the delicacy that is required. Several recommendations were made and the firm of Hill and Knowlton was considered to have the necessary qualifications of high caliber and integrity and the experience to handle the assignment.

04. Hill & Knowlton reports

Document id: nkmn0141 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-15    Pages: 5
Background Material on the Cigarette Industry Client (H&K note on the meeting of December 15, 1953)
Document date: 1953-12-15   Type: minutes   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: GOSS,BC  

Note: Hill & Knowlton's note written by BC Goss on the meeting of tobacco executives at the Hotel Plaza on the morning of December 15, 1953.
The chief executive officers of all the leading companies - RJ Reynolds, Philip Morris, Benson & Hedges, US Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson - have agreed to go along with a public relations program on the health issue.
[...] the two important groups of tobacco growers involved are enthusiastically supporting the new program. Together these tobacco growers represent some 600,000 farms and 2,700,000 farmers. Obviously, the tobacco growers are the political strength along with the 1,300,000 retail tobacco outlets.
The industry is strongly convinced that there is no sound scientific basis for the charges that have been made. They believe that the more sensational accusations in the recent papers were premature and in some cases represent publicity issued in the hopes of attracting funds and support for further research.
[...] the industry should not engage merely in a defensive campaign, replying to and answering individual research papers or magazine articles. They feel that they should sponsor a public relations campaign which is positive in nature and is entirely pro-cigarettes. They are confident they can supply us with comprehensive and authoritative scientific material which completely refutes the health charges.
Document id: rhyw0040 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-24    Pages: 9
Preliminary Recommendations for Cigarette Manufacturers, Hill & Knowlton
Document date: 1953-12-24   Type: report   Collection: Ness Motley Law Firm Documents  
Author: Hill & Knowlton  

Note: Proposed programme of action recommended by Hill & Knowlton which was accepted unanimously at the December 28 TIRC meeting
Note: Minutes written by RW Darrow (RWD) of Hill & Knolwton on the same day as the meeting
Because of the grave nature of a number of recently highly publicized research reports on the effects of cigarette smoking, widespread public interest has developed, causing great concern within and without the industry.
These developments have confronted the industry with a serious problem of public relations. Obviously, that problem would be quickly solved if the adverse publicity would cease and people would stop talking about the whole matter.
The underlying purpose of any activity at this stage should be reassurance of the public through wider communication of facts to the public. It is important that the public recognize the existence of weighty scientific views which hold there is no proof that cigarette smoking is a cause of lung cancer.
The first public statement of the Committee should be designed to clarify the problem and to reassure the public that: (a) the industry's first and foremost interest is the public health; (b) there is no proof of the claims which link smoking and lung cancer; and (c) the industry is inaugurating a joint plan to deal with the situation.
The proposed program dated December 24, 1953, was reviewed and accepted in general by all present. This included agreement with the urgency of getting such a program under way immediately.
It was agreed that the official name of the committee will be Tobacco Industry Research Committee.
It was decided that a frank statement of the cigarette manufacturers' position on the recent lung cancer publicity should be released at the earliest date possible. It was agreed that only through advertising could such a statement be assured high visibility, full quotation and freedom from adulteration with negative information.

05. Report on progress and achievements of TIRC and the public relations campaign

Document id: nxnv0023 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-01-15    Pages: 3
Document date: 1954-01-15   Type: outline   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Recipients: GOSS, HILL, LITTIN  
Note: This reports gives the data on the publication of the Frank Statement
The Committee statement, entitled "A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers," appeared in 448 newspapers, reaching a circulation of 43,245,000 in 258 cities. This included, with very few exceptions, all cities of 50,000 or more population, plus all plant or headquarters cities of Committee members.
Mr. Kolodny of the National Association of Tobacco Distributors has indicated he is willing to distribute the statement advertisement to 1,000,000 tobacco dealers throughout the country.
Document id: fsyh0111 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-07-31    Pages: 22
Document date: 1954-07-31   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: Report of activities through July 31, 1954 from Hill & Knowlton
Document id: ggwg0117 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-10-07    Pages: 5
Document date: 1954-10-07   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: Report of TIRC activities, August and September 1954
Document id: jsyh0111 (PDF)    Document date: 1955-04-28    Pages: 6
Document date: 1955-04-28   Type: report   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Note: Confidential public relation report to the Tobacco Industry Research Committee, April 28, 1955.
The foundation which the Tobacco Industry Research Committee has been building is gaining strength in both breadth and depth . The progress of the scientific program developed by the Scientific Advisory Board is an essential and pervading force. The sound approach to the problem by the Scientific Advisory Board has encouraged other qualified scientists to speak out courageously in questioning those who would write off the lung cancer problem as a smoking problem.
Of necessity, efforts to bring the known facts before the public continue to be in the nature of an educational campaign -- slow, unsensational, factual. Neither the circumstances, nor the available information lend themselves to the sensational treatment accorded the major indictments of tobacco use.
The first "big scare" continues on the wane. There is much general awareness of the big IF factors involved. In some instances, the accusers have gone to such extremes that their credibility is being questioned by their colleagues in their own profession.
The research program of the Tobacco Industry Research Committee has won wide acceptance in the scientific world as a sincere, valuable and scientific effort. This is due primarily to the stature of the men serving on the Scientific Advisory Board, the soundness of the research program developed, the caliber of research so far approved, and of the investigators receiving grants.
There is greater and growing expression of the position that cigarettes do not and should not stand convicted. This is evident in both the scientific and lay communities. Suspicion is still widespread, but the lynching party seems to have been called off, at least temporarily.
Treatment of the cigarette-health issue in public media continue to improve from the Tobbacco Industry Research Committee point of view. Even adverse stories now tend to carry modifying statements. Positive stories are on the ascendancy. They may not always be in the places we would like to see them and they may not always say the things we would like them to say. But at least they are now showing up and they do cast doubt on the cigarette attacks. A year ago attacks predominated and they were generally immoderate.
Issues being kept alive
On the other side of the ledger, we have to face up to these situations:
1. The cigarette-health issue is still considered top news. This is often more apparent at a loca1 level than in national news. While there is a growing tendency to emphasize the uncertainties and disputes in the issue, the end result is to keep the controversy constantly alive.
3. Anti-tobacco crusaders continue to ride the health issue. [...] Dr. Ochsner and Dr. Wynder continue to be the leading anti-tobacco crusaders of stature in the medical and scientific world.
5. An increasing number of scientists and researchists [sic!] are anxious to report on their work involving cigarettes. Of late, most of these have been anticipated and, when necessary, steps are taken to deal with the findings. The reports include studies on the relation of tobacco and heart as well as tobacco and lung cancer.
Document id: xtwd0216 (PDF)    Document date: 1955-12-27    Pages: 3
Statement by TV Hartnett, Chairman, Tobacco Industry Research Institute
Document date: 1955-12-27   Type: press release   Collection: Council for Tobacco Research Records  

Note: Hartnett repeats the PR arguments: inconclusive findings are used to create a "scare campaign," scientists who say tobacco causes cancer are 'extremists', there is no evidence of any cause and effect relationship, it's all "statistical." quotation: The Scientific Advisory Board's calm and detached approach to a difficult problem of broad public interest is in contrast with some of the extremist attacks upon tobacco use. I am not referring to well-meaning scientific reports that contribute to the knowledge we all are seeking. I refer to the campaign of fear in which inconclusive findings are being used as a springboard for sweeping and unwarranted opinions that are frankly aimed at creating a "scare campaign" among the public.
Each generation for the past few centuries has had its share of extremists who have tried to pin practically all the world's ills on tobacco. As facts were developed, one charge after another was disproved and dropped.
The events of the past year relating to the issue of tobacco use and health have re-emphasized the fact that scientific opinion is not at all agreed as to what relationship, if any, there is between smoking and cancer or any other health problem. Those who maintain there is such a relationship rely almost entirely on statistical associations which, in themselves, are frequently conflicting. It is clear that there is no conclusive clinical or experimental evidence that confirms any cause and effect relationship .

09. Miscellaneous

Document id: nfjp0140 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-11-19    Pages: 2
Confidential letter from HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco to PM Hahn, President, American Tobacco
Document date: 1953-11-19   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR  

Recipient: Hahn-PM, ATCO  
Note: Document illustrating three aspects of denialism: 1) the use of fake experts; 2) conspiracy theory; 3) "shoot the messenger".
Since writing the memorandum on cancer research I have received a visit from Dr. A. Clark Griffin of Stanford University whose comments throw some further light on the subject.[...] I asked him what he thought about the current propaganda linking cigarette smoking with lung cancer. He said he had never known of an instance where so little research and such poor research had created so much commotion. [...] It seems that he has been working on projects which are also being investigated at Sloan-Kettering Institute. He visits SKI periodically. He was there for the greater part of last week and was shocked to see how completely they had accepted Wynder's conclusions. In referring to this change in attitude he used the word "disgusting". It appears that a close associate of his, for whom he has a high regard, is located in a laboratory adjoining Wynder's. This gentleman has no use for Wynder.[...]
Before he left, Dr. Griffin said: "I don't know whether there is any relationship between cigarette smoking and cancer, but the research upon which the conclusion is based - stinks".
This gives us a little more insight into the conflicts of opinion, jealousies and antagonism which exist in the medical profession.
In the course of our conversation [Dr. Griffin] referred to politics and said he thought they were less prevalent in the West than they were at S1oan Kettering Institute and New York University. He expressed the opinion that if someone performed research which contradicted the studies and the conclusions of Wynder and Graham he would be able to publish it only at considerable risk to his reputation; that it would bring down the wrath of the medical profession on him and that if anyone had the courage to do so, he might lose his position, so great would be the pressure upon the institution and the department which he represented.
Document id: sfdn0011 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-19    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-10-19   Type: letter   Collection: Liggett & Myers Records  
Authors: Ushare of Amer, Javits  

Recipient: Few  
Note: Letter from United Shareholders of America
This organization, as you may know, represents holders of stock in American corporations, and some of our members are disturbed about the situation with respect to throat and lung cancer being caused by cigarette smoking.
I would deeply appreciate your giving me the facts in connection with this situation.
Document id: qjfc0115 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-11-30    Pages: 1
Internal note by RN DuPuis: "objectivity with all the facts vs. emotionalism with incomplete evidence"
Document date: 1953-11-30   Type: letter   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: DUPUIS,RN  

Recipient: WEISSMAN,G  
Note: Internal note of November 30, 1953 from RN DuPuis, director, Research & Development, Philip Morris, to G Weissman, vice president, Philip Morris. The note provide some illustration of the rhetoric used to deny the causal link between smoking and lung cancer. The current results implicating smoking in the aetiology of lung cancer are motivated by "emotionalism" leading to "drawing conclusions on incomplete evidence" and of course this "extremist approach" is "published because it makes a better story", while "sober, mature and equally earnest and capable scientists have drawn the opposite conclusion after studying all the evidence."
The supreme tenet of any scientist should be objectivity, insistance on having a1l of the facts before passing judgment - as opposed to emotionalism and drawing conclusions on incomplete evidence.
The truth is that no one has ever proved a relationship between smoking and lung cancer.
If the extremist approach is to be published because it makes a better story or for other reasons, let us at least make it known that sober, mature and equally earnest and capable scientists have drawn the opposite conclusion after studying all the evidence.
Document id: fmnp0124 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-00-00    Pages: 3
Handwritten version of RN DuPuis's internal note of November 20, 1953
Document date: 1953-00-00   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: DUPUIS,RN  

Recipient: WEISSMAN,G  
Note: Handwritten version of note qjfc0115 of November 30, 1953
Document id: hlbc0221 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-01-28    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-01-28   Type: letter   Collection: Brown & Williamson Records  
Authors: BAT, WINMILL T  

Recipients: B&W, HARTNETT T  
Note: Letter of January 28, 1953 from T Winmill, BAT, UK to TV Hartnett, Brown & Williamson Tobacco, Louisville, USA. Industry statisticians find a "bad flaw" in the statistical correlation of the causes of cancer due to cigarette consumption
The Imperial Tobacco Company's statisticians feel that they have discovered a bad flaw in the statistical correlation of causes of lung cancer due to cigarette consumption.

XX. Cancer mortality statistics

Document id: pfmf0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-02-11    Pages: 3
Document date: 1953-02-11   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  

Note: Cancer mortality statistics 1933-1947

XX. Correspondence between D MacDonald, journalist at the New Yorker, RJ Reynolds and American Tobacco

Document id: gnxg0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-11-27    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-11-27   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  

Recipient: DARR  
Note: Letter of November 27, 1953 from D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker to EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds, inquiring as to whether RJ Reynolds have appropriated any funds for research into the cancer-smoking problem
I am preparing an article for The New Yorker on the relation of smoking and lung cancer.
As you are doubtless aware, a number of recent studies, notably those of Doll & Hill in England and Graham & Wynder in this country, indicate a strong statistical correlation. The latter announce in the new issue of Cancer Research that they have now "proved beyond any doubt" by laboratory experiments that there is a cancer-producing agent in tobacco smoke.
Document id: hnxg0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-11-30    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-11-30   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Author: I EAD  

Note: Letter of November 30, 1953 to D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker
You name five doctors in your letter who have raised the question of a possible connection between lung cancer and cigarette smoking. This is a very small group, as I am you will agree.
A handful of doctors are claiming that there is a relationship between lung cancer and cigarette smoking, but there are numerous reputable medical men of high standing who hold that there has not been a single shred of real or substantial evidence that there is any relationship whatever.
Document id: kfyn0137 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-08    Pages: 17
-- No Title --
Document date: 1953-12-08   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR  

Recipient: Macdonald-D, New Yorker  
Note: Draft of 18-page letter of December 8, 1953 from HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco, to D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker, with a long list of quotations (medium quality copy)
Document id: jfyn0137 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-08    Pages: 18
-- No Title --
Document date: 1953-12-08   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR  

Recipient: Macdonald-D, New Yorker  
Note: 18-page letter of December 8, 1953 from HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco, to D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker, with a long list of quotations (bad quality copy)
Document id: hfyn0137 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-12-17    Pages: 2
-- No Title --
Document date: 1953-12-17   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Macdonald-D, New Yorker  

Recipient: Hanmer-HR, American Tobacco  
Note: Letter of December 17, 1953 from D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker to HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco
I am interested to know that the American Tobacco Co. has been financing studies of cigarette smoke and of cancer for years. Don't you think, in view of the present situation, it might be well to make public the names of the investigators and laboratories and medical schools involved (with their consent, of course)? Time has already stated you gave $250,000 to the Damon Runyon Fund, for example. Also, would you please let me have the total amounts, by years, appropriated for such research? I can see no reason for not revealing this, at the very least.
Mr. Hahn was quoted by the Times as saying: "For every expert who blames tobacco for the increase in respiratory diseases, there are others who speak with at least equal authority who say there is no evidence that tobacco is the cause." [...] Against these 14 NO authorities since 1948, I can cite 43 YES authorities and 15 MAYBE. The proportion is actually three to one. But three to one is not one to one, and either you should furnish Mr. Hahn with a lot more NO authorities, or he should correct his mistake. zzn0137 note: Letter of January 12, 1954 from D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker to HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco
[...] how much money the American Tobacco Co. has appropriated to date for research into the connection between smoking and lung cancer. Your original letter refers to contributions to research on this problem, but in vague terms, without dates, figures, or names of institutions. This is not very informing. If your company is unwilling to reveal even the amounts it has appropriated for such research, I should like to know the reasons, at least.
You are mistaken in thinking that Dr. Hamnond of the American Cancer Society is in agreement with Mr. Hahn's statement that °For every expert who blames tobacco for the increase in respiratory diseases, there are others who speak with at least equal authority who say there is no evidence that tobacco is the cause. I interviewed him the other day, read him the statement, and asked if he thought it accurate. He said he most emphatically did not, and added that he could not think of a single authority who now thought there is "no evidence that tobacco is the cause." He himself is still undecided as to how much and how significant a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer there is, but that is something different from what Mr. Hahn said.
Document id: tznn0137 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-01-15    Pages: 1
-- No Title --
Document date: 1954-01-15   Type: letter   Collection: American Tobacco Records  
Author: Hanmer-HR  

Recipient: Macdonald-D, New Yorker  
Note: Letter of January 15, 1954 from HR Hanmer, Director of Research, American Tobacco to D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker
With reference to contributions of The American Tobacco Company to research in re smoking and health, I believe reasons for not detailing these were set forth fairly clearly in our original letter to you. The fact that Mr. Winchell saw fit to disclose the gift to Damon Runyon does not, in my judgment, alter the situation. I would not think this the time nor the place to depart from our policy.
Document id: slxm0080 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-01-14    Pages: 1
Document date: 1954-01-14   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Authors: I EAD, UNK  

Note: Letter of January 14, 1954 from EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds to D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker
I do not know where you get the figures that you gave in your letter of December 21, but if you desire accurate figures I suggest you get in touch with Messrs. Hill and Knowlton, who are acting as public relations counsel for the Tobacco Industry Research Committee.
Document id: xnxg0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-01-26    Pages: 1
Document date: 1954-01-26   Type: letter, consumer   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  

Recipients: DARR, RJR  
Note: Letter of January 26, 1854 from D MacDonald, staff writer at The New Yorker, to EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds. The journalist is offended by what Darr had said in his previous letter
You write "I don't know where you get the figures you gave in your letter of Dec. 21, but if you desire accurate figures, I suggest you get in touch with Messrs. Hill and Knowlton." I shall, of course, do this. But you do know where I got the figures, since I stated in my letter I got them from my own research in the medical press. And it is rather rude of you to call them inaccurate - also unintelligent, since you have not seen my research.

XX. Correspondence with GE Moore

Document id: rljx0119 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-07-01    Pages: 2
Document date: 1953-07-01   Type: letter   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Authors: HBI, MOORE,GE  

Recipient: LYON,A  
Note: Letter of July 1, 1953 from GE Moore to A Lyon, Philip Morris
Document id: tjfc0115 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-08-08    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-08-08   Type: letter   Collection: Philip Morris Records  

Recipient: DUPUIS,RN  
Note: Letter of August 8, 1953 from GE Moore to RN DuPuis, Philip Morris
Document id: sjfc0115 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-09-03    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-09-03   Type: letter   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: DUPUIS,RN  

Note: Letter of September 3, 1953 from RN DuPuis, Philip Morris, to GE Moore

XX. Example of how the industry respond to queries about the link between their products and cancer

Document id: jnxg0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-02-08    Pages: 1
Document date: 1954-02-08   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Author: MILLER BA  

Recipient: RJR  
Document id: rlxm0080 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-02-11    Pages: 1
Document date: 1954-02-11   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Author: I WSK  

Recipients: MILLER BA, UNK  

XX. Example of how the industry uses a scientist who has tobacco-friendly views. The case of Eleanor McDonald

Document id: hnnk0141 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-05-04    Pages: 2
-- No Title --
Document date: 1953-05-04   Type: letter   Collection: Brown & Williamson Records  
Authors: Hartnett-T, B&W  

Recipients: Sinclair-R, Imperial Tobacco Co (of GB & I) Ltd  
Note: Letter of May 4, 1953 from TV Hartnett, Brown & Williamson to Sir R Sinclair, Imperial Tobacco, Bristol, England. The letter includes a copy of a UP press release date April 24, 1953 and entitled "Smoking not to blame for lung cancer"
Existing statistical information allegedly connecting lung cancer with cigarette smoking is 'poppycock,' a noted cancer statistician said yesterday.
Miss Eleanor Macdonald of the M.D. Anderson Hospital and the University of Texas gave comforting words to cigarette smokers, heavy and otherwise, pointing out that the only indication that smoking is a cause of lung cancer is statistical."
Document id: hmxm0080 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-15    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-10-15   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  

Recipients: DARR EA, RJR  
Note: Letter of October 15, 1953 from AG Clark, CAMEL Cigarettes, Medical Relations Division to EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds
This will confirm our conversation of yesterday concerning the biometrician, Miss Eleanor McDonald, at the Anderson Cancer Hospital in Houston, Texas. I talked this morning with her sister, Miss Mary McDonald, who is chief statistician at Memorial Hospital here in New York.
According to Miss Mary McDonald, her sister has acquired statistics on the relation of tobacco to cancer in the States of Connecticut, Rhode Island and New York, and for the past year, complete statistics on the State of Texas.
Mary McDonald is of the opinion that Eleanor would be delighted to provide me with all of her basic statistics, or to prepare them for publication in collaboration with a doctor of her selection in the Anderson Hospital.
Document id: gmxm0080 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-19    Pages: 1
Document date: 1953-10-19   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Authors: I EAD, UNK  

Note: Letter of October 19, 1953 from EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds to AG Clark, CAMEL Cigarettes, Medical Relations Division
I approve of your plan to personally call on Miss McDonald and the idea of getting her material published in collaboration with a doctor is just the sort of thing that we are looking for. As stated to you, I have great hopes of our making some real progress along the line of counter-propaganda.

XX. Looking for other causes of lung cancer than smoking

Document id: xxpw0130 (PDF)    Document date: 1953-10-28    Pages: 2
Document date: 1953-10-28   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: DUPUIS,RN  

Recipient: WEISSMAN,G  
Note: Looking for other causal factors of lung cancer: asbestos in cigarette filters!
I think it would also be well to discuss [...] possible methods of determining the effects of sma11 particles of filter additives,like asbestos and cellulose fibers, on lung tissue.
As a preliminary method of attack on the problem, I should think it would be possible to determine the amount of asbestos and cellulose fibers in smoke by laboratory methods and then relate this to probable effects on lung tissue, knowing from literature reading what effects such fibers have on the lungs when ingested in other ways.

YY. Exchange of letters with LF Montgomery, President, Coca-Cola Bottling Company

Document id: fnfx0016 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-02-15    Pages: 2
Document date: 1954-02-15   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  

Recipient: RJR  
Note: Letter of February 15, 1954 from LF Montgomery, President, Coca-Cola Bottling Company to RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company
The talk of lung cancer has been much in the news recently and I personally know Dr, Ochsner, whose son went to prep-school with my youngest. In view of a persistent cough up to the time I started smoking Camels I accepted his advice to have a chest X-ray made. It turned out all right, but to be perfectly frank with you I have curtailed my smoking to a package and a half a day instead of two.
Document id: lnxg0003 (PDF)    Document date: 1954-02-17    Pages: 1
Document date: 1954-02-17   Type: letter   Collection: RJ Reynolds Records  
Author: I EAD  

Note: Letter of February 17, 1954 from EA Darr, President, RJ Reynolds to LF Montgomery, President, Coca-Cola Bottling Company. The answer provides a good illustration of the "kill the messenger" approach and using the device of labelling scientists as "extremists" whose "opposition to cigarettes" is an "obsession".
So far as the lung cancer talk is concerned, we take the position that up to how only a few doctors are claiming a relationship between lung cancer and cigarette smoking, and the fact that their views are not shared by the vast majority of other scientists seems to us to be quite significant.
The physician you mention has been active for years in his opposition to cigarettes, and I'm afraid it has become somewhat of an obsession with him. Recently, he has stated that the reason the vast majority of members of the medical profession do not agree with him is that they do not know as much about the subject as he does, or that they are cigarette smokers and do not want to admit they are doing something they shouldn't! In a latter talk about a week ago, he suggested that the people will`probably pass laws to prohibit smoking altogether. I believe you wilt agree that this is going to extremes.

ZZ. Off subject but interesting

Document id: ggml0041 (PDF)    Document date: 1950-01-02    Pages: 4
Confidential Communication From Outside Counsel for Bat, with Whom B&W Maintains A Common Legal Interest, to B&W Management Providing Legal Advice and Opinion Regarding A Cork Tipped Cigarette
Document date: 1950-01-02   Type: letter   Collection: Brown & Williamson Records  
Author: T Winmill  

Recipient: T Hartnett  
Note: Letter of January 2, 1950 from T Winmill, BAT, UK to TV Hartnett, Brown & Williamson Tobacco, Louisville, USA.
[...] I have also discussed the matter thoroughly with Oppenheim and he, too, is doubtful of the wisdom of making a counter attack. Public memories are extraordinarily short, but controversy does give an ideal opportunity for the point at issue to get thoroughly well grounded in the public mind.
Document id: kthp0104 (PDF)    Document date: 1950-01-00    Pages: 11
Document date: 1950-01-00   Type: bibliography   Collection: Lorillard Records  

Note: Reader's Digest article of January 1950 entitled "How Harmful Are Cigarettes"
Document id: tnwl0112 (PDF)    Document date: 1958-02-21    Pages: 33
Dr. A Ochsner's Speech at National Association of Claimant Compensation, Attorneys Midwinter Convention
Document date: 1958-02-21   Type: presentation   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: OCHSNER,A  

Note: Dr. A Ochsner's Speech at National Association of Claimant Compensation, Attorneys Midwinter Convention, Louisiana, February 21, 1958. A very articulate presentation of the evidence available at the time that smoking causes cancer.
Document id: jtwk0122 (PDF)    Document date: 1964-03-19    Pages: 2
Public Relations Strategy, confidential memorandum from G. Weissman, President, Philip Morris International
Document date: 1964-03-19   Type: memo   Collection: Philip Morris Records  
Author: WEISSMAN,G  

Recipient: SMITH,PD  
[...] in future tactics, more use be made of the [Surgeon General] Report's statement of the significant medical benefits in the area of mental health.
This will at least give our smokers something to cling to, some branch to hold on to, some rationale for them to resume smoking or continue smoking.